Cleansing the Temple

A Sermon by the Rev. James P. Cooper

Then Jesus went into the temple of God and drove out all those who bought and sold in the temple, and overturned the tables of the moneychangers and the seats of those who sold doves. And He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a 'den of thieves.'" (Matthew 21:12, 13)

At the time of the Lord's coming, the Jews were selective in their use of the Word. While the scribes and Pharisees had changed the laws of Moses so much as to make them unrecognizable (and in so doing had brought tremendous power into their own hands), at the same time the Jewish people remembered and held literally true the Covenant that had first been made to Abraham, that if they would follow God's commandments, they would be the chosen people and would inherit a land flowing with milk and honey. They were looking for the Messiah to come to lead them to their heavenly paradise, to throw off the hated yoke of Rome, to lead them to the position of eminence that they knew they deserved. They wanted power. They wanted a land of their own. They wanted revenge upon the Romans. This is what they expected and demanded of their Messiah.

Jesus Christ seemed to them to be the one who was an answer to their prayers. He had miraculous powers. He challenged the authority of the scribes and the Pharisees. He had new ideas about everything. His life fulfilled the prophecies of scripture, and then He entered Jerusalem on the traditional mount of a king! The time for rebellion was near! They finally had a king who could lead them against Rome and free them from their years of oppression! They were about to have heaven on earth!

But what happened next was not at all what they expected. The very first thing the Lord did upon entering Jerusalem as the Messiah and king of the Jewish nation was to enter the temple and drive out the moneychangers. Because it was the first thing He did, it showed the people just what they could expect from their Messiah, their king. It showed them clearly and dramatically that He was going to re-establish a religion based on genuine spiritual values. And, having made this point quite clear, He waited for the people to respond to Him in freedom. Within a week, they crucified Him. They did not want a spiritual kingdom, He was not the kind of king they expected or wanted.

What we need to reflect on this morning is what we expect from God. Are our expectations realistic? In our heart of hearts are we expecting gifts from Him that we do not deserve? Is our concept of heaven material and natural? Do we become angry and resentful with God when life does not go as we planned? Before we attempt to answer these questions, let us study the message carried in the internal sense of this story.

Jerusalem was the centre of the Jewish Church. A city represents doctrine. When the Lord entered Jerusalem and was welcomed as the Messiah, it was because they thought He would be a Messiah on their terms, according to their own understanding, and while they believed that He was to be an earthly king, they were willing to acknowledge His kingship. And so, they welcomed Him with palm branches, and called him "Jesus, the prophet of Nazareth."

On the external level, the Jewish Church was still able to acknowledge simple truths when pointed out to them. The problem was that there was rottenness within that had to be exposed. The Lord sought to expose that internal corruption by His teachings and actions during that last week. He was completely successful in drawing out the internal corruption and exposing it to the light of truth, and in so doing, caused the Jewish Church to judge itself by crucifying their own Messiah.

In order to save the human race (that is, to be Jesus the Saviour), he had to bear the temptations, that is, He had to allow the Jews to treat Him as they had treated the Word. The Jewish Church at that time did not acknowledge the Word, since they had perverted it so that no truth remained in the Mosaic Laws. Therefore they did not acknowledge the Lord when He came to fulfil the prophecies of the Word.

The Lord is identified as the Word when He is called by the multitude, "The prophet of Nazareth."1 For the Word was given to men through the prophets, and everywhere in the Word, prophets represent the Word. The Lord is the essential prophet, and when people call Him a prophet, it identifies the quality that is to be emphasized in that particular passage.2

Jewish ritual and Mosaic law required that every Jew come to Jerusalem to make a sacrifice in the temple at some point in their life. This meant that every day many people would arrive at the temple with the need to perform certain rituals. Those that had travelled a long distance could not always bring an animal of their own for the sacrifice, so the church leaders allowed merchants to sell animals in the temple for the convenience of the pilgrims. Because they came from many different countries with different currencies, the leaders also allowed moneychangers to set up their stalls, again for the convenience of the pilgrims (and their own profit). We can imagine that after a while, the interior of the temple was more like a street market than a house of prayer with the noise of the animals and the haggling of the merchants. The Lord entered the temple and drove out those that bought and sold, the moneychangers, and those who sold doves.

"Those that sold and bought" signify those who make gain for themselves out of holy things. "Moneychangers" are those who do this by using the truths of the church, "those who sold doves" are those who do it from the goods of the church. A "den of Thieves" signifies those who steal the goods and truths of the church for their own gain.

For example: Think of someone who says he belongs to a religious denomination because he knows an acquaintance does, and he wishes to sell him goods or services based upon their common church membership, rather than superior value. Such a person is using a deliberate, knowing lie to make a profit. A person could abuse the good of the church by deliberately living according to the laws of the church solely for the sake of impressing another that they were worthy of a position of trust, yet with the full intention of using that position of trust to commit a fraud, or theft. All those who pretend to have the faith and charity of the church for the sake of deceiving others into giving them some advantage, are spiritual moneychangers and sellers of doves.

So, the Lord went into the temple because it was a "den of thieves," because the Jewish Church was full of those who used the laws and traditions of the Church to obtain power and money for themselves. He drove out "those who sold and bought", that is, all those who wished to use the church for their own purposes. Specifically he drove out the "moneychangers," those who abused the truths of the church, and "those who sold doves," or those who abused the goods of the church. His intention was to return the temple into its former state of being a "house of prayers," that is, a church where there was genuine worship from the good of love and charity. However, since the Jewish church was unwilling to be cleansed, it was necessary that a new church be established, the Christian Church, where there could be genuine worship from a life according to the new doctrines revealed to the world by Jesus3.

Immediately after cleansing the temple, the blind and lame came to him in the temple, and He healed them there. The "blind" are those who wished to know truth but could not get it from the fallen church, while the "lame" are those who wished to do what was good, but were taught evil by the self-seeking scribes and Pharisees.

This tells us that the Lord must first be in a church, and then those who wish to know the truth from the Word can find it, and those who wish to do the goods of the church for the sake of their neighbours will be able to do so. When the Lord is the centre of the church, when He is in the temple, then the church is in order, and wonderful things can happen.

When the Lord is the centre of the church, those who would seek to enslave and cause misery, those who would like to turn the goods and truths of the church to their own personal advantage, are enraged, and they begin to think how they can remove the Lord from His temple.

Earlier in this sermon, it was suggested that each of us reflect on what we expect from the Lord. Even though we have never intended to bring material things into the centre of our lives, upon self-examination, we find that they are indeed there. In our spiritual lives, we have certain expectations. We believe that we deserve a good job, a loving partner, delightful, obedient children, a nice home, and if we do not get these things we blame God. Do we feel that He has not lived up to our expectations, has not given us the promised rewards for our good life? Do we then feel justified in turning away from Him, removing Him from our lives, crucifying Him?

The key to the answer lies in the phrase, "good life." and what we mean by our "good life." The Doctrines tell us that anyone can live a civil and moral life, in fact, most people do because they are afraid of the loss of reputation, honour, and gain. Further, most people expect that once they get to the world of spirits, they will go to heaven because they have basically followed the rules in the world.

But what is a "good" life? It is not just following the civil laws of one's country, for anyone, even a totally evil person, can do that. It is not even following the moral and spiritual laws of the church. The "good" life is to follow the civil, moral, and spiritual codes from conscience, which can only be done when the things of self and the world are consciously and deliberately rejected because they are against what the Lord wants. These things, like the merchants' stalls in the temple, clutter up the spirit, prevent spiritual growth, and must be removed before the Lord can become the centre of our lives.

If we expect the Lord to simply take us as we are, we are mistaken. If we expect material rewards in this life in return for an externally good life, we will be disappointed. He came on earth to form a spiritual kingdom which shall endure forever. He will be our king, He will enter our spiritual lives and give us spiritual rewards beyond our imagination, but first the moneychangers must be driven out. The seats of those who sell doves must be overturned. Only when we first shun evil can the Lord then enter our minds with good. If we shun evils and turn to the Lord as the centre of our lives, if He is in our temple, then our blindness can be healed, and lameness will be no more. And He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a 'den of thieves.'" Then the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple, and He healed them. (MAT 21:13, 14) AMEN.

Lessons: JER 7:1-11, Matthew 21:1-17, TCR 129

First Lesson: JER 7:1-11

The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, {2} "Stand in the gate of the Lord's house, and proclaim there this word, and say, 'Hear the word of the LORD, all you of Judah who enter in at these gates to worship the LORD!'" {3} Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: "Amend your ways and your doings, and I will cause you to dwell in this place. {4} "Do not trust in these lying words, saying, 'The temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD are these.' {5} "For if you thoroughly amend your ways and your doings, if you thoroughly execute judgement between a man and his neighbour, {6} "if you do not oppress the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and do not shed innocent blood in this place, or walk after other gods to your hurt, {7} "then I will cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers forever and ever. {8} "Behold, you trust in lying words that cannot profit. {9} "Will you steal, murder, commit adultery, swear falsely, burn incense to Baal, and walk after other gods whom you do not know, {10} "and then come and stand before Me in this house which is called by My name, and say, 'We are delivered to do all these abominations' ?{11} "Has this house, which is called by My name, become a den of thieves in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it," says the LORD. Amen.

Second Lesson: MAT 21:1-17

Now when they drew near Jerusalem, and came to Bethphage, at the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples, {2} saying to them, "Go into the village opposite you, and immediately you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her. Loose them and bring them to Me. {3} "And if anyone says anything to you, you shall say, 'The Lord has need of them,' and immediately he will send them." {4} All this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying: {5} "Tell the daughter of Zion, 'Behold, your King is coming to you, Lowly, and sitting on a donkey, A colt, the foal of a donkey.'" {6} So the disciples went and did as Jesus commanded them. {7} They brought the donkey and the colt, laid their clothes on them, and set Him on them. {8} And a very great multitude spread their clothes on the road; others cut down branches from the trees and spread them on the road. {9} Then the multitudes who went before and those who followed cried out, saying: "Hosanna to the Son of David! 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!' Hosanna in the highest!" {10} And when He had come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, "Who is this?" {11} So the multitudes said, "This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee." {12} Then Jesus went into the temple of God and drove out all those who bought and sold in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who sold doves. {13} And He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a 'den of thieves.'" {14} Then the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple, and He healed them. {15} But when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that He did, and the children crying out in the temple and saying, "Hosanna to the Son of David!" they were indignant {16} and said to Him, "Do You hear what these are saying?" And Jesus said to them, "Yes .Have you never read, 'Out of the mouth of babes and nursing infants You have perfected praise'?" {17} Then He left them and went out of the city to Bethany, and He lodged there. Amen.

Third Lesson: TCR 129

129. The reason why the Lord was willing to undergo temptations even to the point of suffering upon the cross, was that He was the Prophet, and prophets in ancient times meant the church's doctrine from the Word; consequently they represented the church in its state at that time by the various unfair, harsh and even criminal acts imposed on them by God. However, since the Lord was the Word itself, by His passion on the cross as the Prophet He represented the way in which the Jewish church profaned the Word. Another reason was that He should thus be acknowledged in the heavens as the Saviour of both worlds. For all the details of His passion stand for details of the profanation of the Word; and the angels understand them spiritually, while men in the church do so naturally. Amen.


1 MAT 21:11

2 See Lord 15

3 See AE 840:4, 325:10, 410:8